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 Unit 5 - Introduction & Objectives ~ Early Childhood

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PostSubject: Unit 5 - Introduction & Objectives ~ Early Childhood   Mon May 09, 2011 4:49 pm

Introduction



Early childhood occurs between the ages of two to six. During this
time, young children's thinking, memory, and intelligence take
significant leaps. The development of relationships with others
increases, particularly with peers. As children begin to influence one
another through greater interactions, the function of child's play
becomes important to the development of social and cognitive skills. At
this time, gender awareness also develops. All of these changes take
place within the context of family, peers, and communities.


A young child's world is comprised of the immediate contexts of
family, peer, and community. During this time, peer interactions take
on greater importance. In particular, play becomes a critical means of
learning cognitive and prosocial skills. Piaget (1962) outlined
sequences of play where children incrementally develop more
sophisticated play skills as they advance through the stages. The
adoption of higher sequences of play indicates children's progressive
social and cognitive advances through peer interaction and awareness of
themselves in relation to others.

How children think in early childhood is explained by Piaget's stage
model. He suggested children cognitively develop in relation to
interaction to their environment. Children are active explorers of
their world, and through this exploration, they learn to develop
cognitively. During early childhood, toddlers and preschoolers begin to
think symbolically, although not necessarily logically. At this time,
children's thinking is egocentric, meaning they are not able to see
other perspectives; Piaget refers to this stage as preoperational.
Based upon Piaget's theory, early childhood education programs that
help children's learning and memory develop expand their capabilities.


Another important area in early childhood is the impact of gender.
In the past several decades, an appreciation for the role that gender
plays in psychological development has strengthened. Biologically based
research has helped to explain well-known (as well as more subtle)
gender behavior and the socio-emotional expressions of these
characteristics. To understand how gender relates to a child's internal
developmental process, it is necessary to review the biological,
cognitive, familial, and community sources of gender influence.
Psychologists can play a direct role in guiding the discussion of
gender issues and serve as sources of expert advice to parents,
educators, community leaders, and policy decision makers in this regard
(Boyd & Bee, 2008).


Parenting styles and family remain critical to a child's overall
development. Baumrind (1971) described three styles of parenting, which
Maccoby and Martin (1983) expanded to four types of parenting styles.
These styles have been found to affect children in a variety of areas.
Family functioning is also critical to understanding children's
developmental outcomes. The complexity of family influence on child
psychology continues to represent a rich area of research. With more
intense attention being paid to the role of the family, especially
parenting, there is a heightened awareness of the need to understand
how family influences children's behavior and development.


Emotional, psychosocial, cognitive, and perceptual processes are
influenced by the sociocultural milieu in which a child lives. Given
the effects of nature and nurture on an individual's development, the
specific influences of parenting, including family, culture, and
society have particular relevance (Berk, 2008).


Unfortunately, some children are exposed to child abuse and/or
neglect. Statistics by the CDC (1998) are alarming; for example, every
year approximately 2,000 infants and children in the U.S. die due to
abuse and/or neglect (Boyd & Bee, 2008). These conditions are
explored in this unit for their maladaptive effects on young children's
development.

Psychologists and counselors working with children and parents must
have a solid understanding of how growth occurs and an appreciation for
the complexity of a young child's life.

References



Baumrind, D. (1967). Childcare practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychological Monographs, 75, 43–88.


Berk, L. E. (2008). Infants, children, and adolescents. (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.


Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2008). Lifespan development (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998). Youth risk behavior surveillance. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 47, 3–33.


Maccoby, E. E.,
& Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family:
Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.) & E. M.
Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York, NY: Wiley.


Piaget, J. P. (1962). Play, dreams, and imitation in childhood. New York, NY:Norton.

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PostSubject: Re: Unit 5 - Introduction & Objectives ~ Early Childhood   Mon May 09, 2011 4:50 pm

Unit 5 – Early Childhood

Objectives

To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:

  1. Develop information-gathering strategies for print and electronic
    media, appropriate to the purpose and type of information sought, in
    the domain of human lifespan development.
  2. Discuss the effects of parenting and family functioning on development.
  3. Discuss the importance of play in cognitive and social development.
  4. Review early childhood thinking and cognitive development theory and concepts.

Learning Activities

u05s1 Studies


Unit 5 Activities Overview


Launch Overview |
Transcript

Multimedia


  • Click Launch Overview to listen to the Unit 5 Activities Overview. Dr. Nancy Longo describes the study activities for this unit.
Checklist

Read each unit checklist at the start of each week and use it however it will be most helpful for you.
Readings

Read the following in the Boyd and Bee text:


  • Chapter 7, "Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood," pages 175–205.

  • Chapter 8, "Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood," pages 206–243.


u05s2 Reference List Preparation


By now you should have a good start on your project reference list, which is due in Unit 6.

For the Unit 6 assignment, you will provide a list of resources you
have identified as resources for your project. For each reference,
provide a brief assessment of the reference that includes how you
believe the source will contribute to your project.

The informational interview (personal communication) will be part of
the final project but will not be a part of the reference page as we do
not reference personal communications. However, the interview must be
cited in text. Therefore, also provide a brief assessment of the
informational interview that includes how you believe the source will
contribute to your project.

The Capella University Library now offers all learners access to a
RefWorks account. RefWorks is a way to manage your research citations.
You can annotate and organize your citations, and create APA-formatted
bibliographies, using simple steps. Click here to set up a new RefWorks account.

Review the Reference List assignment and its scoring guide to
prepare for this assignment. Refer to the Professional Application of
Lifespan Development Project Description and Scoring Guide for further
guidance.

Resources







u05a1 Issue Paper



For this assignment, you will develop a paper based on an issue that
is pertinent to lifespan development. For your subject, you may select
any topic you have studied in the first five units of this course,
including the issues outlined in the unit studies.

Prior to writing your paper, as you review resources, use the Issue
Paper Analysis Worksheet to analyze the authors' positions on the issue
and the arguments they present to support their positions. To fill out
the worksheet, work your way down through the analysis components for
each individual article and record your analysis for each component in
the cell under the title of the article you are reviewing. When you
have completed your analysis of individual articles, you can then look
across the responses to compare and contrast the perspectives on the
issue.

Prior to submitting your paper, use the link provided in the Resources below to send your work to Smarthinking for feedback.

Include the following sections in your paper, clearly divided by appropriate headings:

  • Summary: Include a brief summary or overview of
    the issue you have selected (approximately one page). Provide complete
    APA in-text citations for your resources.

  • Discussion: Discuss why the topic is important to
    lifespan development (approximately one page). Provide complete APA
    in-text citations for your resources.

  • Comparison: Compare and contrast one media
    resource and one scholarly resource (approximately two pages). Discuss
    the merits of each type of resource. Provide complete APA in-text
    citations for your resources.

  • Application: Explain how you might apply the
    information you learned about the issue, and offer any suggestions you
    have to improve social policy related to the topic (approximately two
    pages).

  • Smarthinking Analysis: Include the Smarthinking Analysis comments from the e-structor as an attachment.

  • Issue Paper Analysis Worksheet: Include a copy of your Issue Paper Analysis Worksheet as an attachment.


Submission Requirements



  • Written Communication: Written communication should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
  • APA Formatting: Resources and in-text citations should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.
  • Font and Font Size: Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced. Use Microsoft Word.
  • Number of Resources: Use a minimum of two outside resources: one scholarly, and one recent media resource.
  • Smarthinking Submission: Prior to submitting your paper, send your work to Smarthinking for feedback.


Review the Issue Paper Scoring Guide to learn the grading criteria
for this assignment. Review the PSYC3210 APA Guidelines to be sure you
have met the APA requirements for this course.

Submit your Issue Paper to the Unit 5 Assignment box.

Note: Your instructor may also use the Writing
Feedback Tool to provide feedback on your writing. In the tool, click
on the linked resources for helpful writing information.

Portfolio Prompt: You are required to save this learning activity to your ePortfolio.

Resources


u05d1 The Importance of Play



In our readings for this unit,
the authors discussed the role of play in early childhood. Use Piaget's
theory to help explain the importance of play in a child's development.
Discuss also the importance of play to a young child's social
development. You may use any real examples of child's play to
illustrate your main points of discussion.
In your answer, include the following:

  • Either: Refer to and integrate ideas presented in
    the text and supplemental information. Cite the textbook at least twice
    within your discussion.
  • Or: Cite at least one scholarly resource from the
    Capella library to support your discussion. Do not use Internet Web
    sites such as Wikipedia.
Follow APA style rules for citing references.
You will be evaluated on how well you can demonstrate that you
understand the ideas presented throughout the unit, including assigned
readings, discussions, media and independent research. You will also be
evaluated on the quality of your work—its academic rigor, how well it
shows your ability to think critically, and how completely it covers
the discussion topic. Refer to the Discussion Participation Scoring
Guide in the Resources below to learn how your discussions will be
evaluated.Response Guidelines

Respond to at least two
other learners in a manner that advances the discussion in a meaningful
way. Your response is expected to be substantive in nature and to
reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical,
empirical, or professional literature to support your views. Cite your
sources using APA style.

Resources


u05d2 Parenting Styles



The Boyd and Bee text outlines
different parenting styles, and their relationship to ethnicity and
socioeconomic status. Based on parenting styles theory and research,
what culturally sensitive guidance would you offer parents and child
development professionals in relation to children's social, academic,
and emotional outcomes?
In your answer, include the following:

  • Either: Refer to and integrate ideas presented in
    the text and supplemental information. Cite the textbook at least twice
    within your discussion.
  • Or: Cite at least one scholarly resource from the
    Capella library to support your discussion. Do not use Internet Web
    sites such as Wikipedia.
Follow APA style rules for citing references.
You will be evaluated on how well you can demonstrate that you
understand the ideas presented throughout the unit, including assigned
readings, discussions, media and independent research. You will also be
evaluated on the quality of your work—its academic rigor, how well it
shows your ability to think critically, and how completely it covers
the discussion topic. Refer to the Discussion Participation Scoring
Guide in the Resources below to learn how your discussions will be
evaluated.Response Guidelines

Respond to at least two
other learners in a manner that advances the discussion in a meaningful
way. Your response is expected to be substantive in nature and to
reference the assigned readings, as well as other theoretical,
empirical, or professional literature to support your views. Cite your
sources using APA style.

Resources

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